Did you know that plastic surgery was developed in response to military needs? We often forget this, but many medical innovations were developed thanks to the army. Because the general physical conditions of soldiers can make the difference between the success and failure of a military operation, the armed forces must ensure the health of their members. That is why they do not hesitate to invest in research and development (R&D) in health care. But how does R&D in a military context work? How do military needs impact on health research? What can we learn from the medicine of war?